Non-Probabilistic Approach to e-Banking Adoption: The Moderating Impact of Trialability

From Management and Labour Studies


This study aims to assess the factors influencing the adoption of e-banking in a developing country and to explore the moderating effects of trialability on the relationship between behavioral intention and the actual use of e-banking services. The study has employed the convenience and cross-sectional data collection approach in three of the 16 regions in Ghana. Data was collected from 568 respondents through an online survey. The Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) was used to analyze the data. The findings indicate that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions positively and significantly influence the intention to adopt e-banking. The structural path analysis also showed that trialability positively and significantly moderates the relationship between behavioral intention and actual use of e-banking platforms. This research fills the existing gap in the e-banking literature by integrating trialability into the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model to assess its moderating impact on the relationship between behavioral intention and actual e-banking adoption in a developing country.

Although many studies have investigated consumer intention to adopt e-banking, little is known about the impact of UTAUT variables from an e-banking perspective. There is also a dearth of research on the moderating impact of trialability on the relationship between behavioral intention and actual use. The theoretical contribution of this research was to investigate the variables of UTAUT in e-banking adoption by applying the model in a developing country such as Ghana. Second, the research was conducted with a focus on the consumer. In Ghana, most consumers of banks have little or no experience with e-banking; as a result, this research fills a gap in the literature on e-banking adoption in Ghana. Third, this study integrates trialability and the UTAUT model to assess its moderating impact on the relationship between behavioral intention and actual e-banking adoption.

The results of this study present some critical implications for managers. First, the findings revealed that the customers of Ghanaian banks would adopt e-banking platforms if they perceived the benefits to be advantageous. Therefore, managers should focus on improving the overall performance of e-banking applications to ensure a satisfying customer experience. Also, the managers should ensure that the interface of e-banking platforms is user-friendly, uncomplicated, easy to navigate, precise, and requires less mental effort. Furthermore, they must expand their customers' technical skills and knowledge of using e-banking applications. More so, managers should develop a medium through which their consumers can experiment with e-banking applications before adopting them. Furthermore, technological, technical, and organizational support should be available for enthusiastic customers about adopting e-banking services. 

This study surveyed the customers of banks from three out of 16 regions in Ghana. This may affect the generalization of the findings in the context of the country's population. Future researchers should extend this study beyond the three regions to get a complete picture of the factors influencing the adoption of e-banking in Ghana. Besides the trialability variable, all other investigated variables were adopted from the UTAUT model, mostly consumer factors; this list is not exhaustive. Future researchers should confirm the importance of other institutional factors such as legal framework, quality of IT personnel, ICT policy in the country, and the top management's commitment to e-banking. This study adopted convenience sampling (a non-probabilistic approach) for selecting respondents. This method may not necessarily capture the view of the entire population as a whole. Future research can employ a probabilistic approach to investigate e-banking adoption. More so, other researchers can study the factors influencing the adoption of electronic service platforms beyond the banking industry, specifically in tourism, insurance, and online retail. Finally, the sample does not cover an important part of the population for which results may differ substantially in the context of trialability, and that is the respondents above the age of 50 years (senior citizens). Therefore, future research can conscientiously add these senior citizens in investigating technology trialability.




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