The changing environment at the workplace drives organizations to seek new and effective ways to improve their performance.
To attain this performance improvement, organizations must focus on
upgrading employees’ abilities and enhance their motivational levels to achieve
the desired goals. An organization's understanding of its employees is an
essential tool for success.
Additionally, there is a need to link employee motivation with
development factors such as compensation systems, job enrichment and enlargement
practices, as well as training to encourage and motivate employees to increase
their performance (Upneja & Ozdemir, 2014).
The importance of employee motivation in the organization comes from the
significant and direct effects of employees’ attitudes and behaviors on the
total productivity of the organization. Organizations need to attract
prospective talented employees with the required skills to join the
organization. Moreover, to increase the existing employees’ commitment to stay
within the organization, it is highly essential to implement a suitable
compensation system that works as a stimulus for the employees (Aslam et al., 2015).
In the same vein, job enrichment and enlargement policies, as well as
effective training strategies, are helpful to an organization to enhance the
interest and commitment of its employees.
Globalization and transformations in the work environment have inspired
organizations to develop human capital capable to sustain a competitive edge in
the domestic and international markets (Johnson, 2008). In a recent ever-changing market,
organizations have to operate in a highly challenging and dynamic work
environment encouraging organizations to transform their policies to remain
Employee motivation is a critical influencer of organizational success
and close attention needs to be paid to the factors that affect the
motivational level of employees (Güngör,
2011). Furthermore, rapid changes in the work process make the adaptability
of new technology and skills as essential tools for the organization to gain a
Unfortunately, in terms of human capital development, low progress has
been noted among developing countries such as Libya (Alhgig
& Mehta, 2018). Notably, the telecommunication sector in Libya, despite
its massive contribution to the economy, is facing numerous challenges in terms
of employee motivation resulting in low organizational performance (Almadani,
According to the annual report of telecommunication companies in Libya
on employee motivation, employees have been found with low levels of
motivation, especially after the revaluation phase in the country (Alhgig
& Mehta, 2018). Low employee motivation is a challenge faced by the
country due to complex circumstances that forced the current government to
propose a new payroll law.
Connecting the employee motivation with the organizational pay system
can help to ensure the validity of the salary, and whether or not the employees
receive the deserved amount from their work (Milne, 2007). Low levels of employee motivation can result
in disruption of organizational stability and growth.
Research conducted in the USA empirically proved that organizations have
used the compensation system to improve the chief executive officer (CEO)
performance and motivation was found positively linked with the total
organization profitability (Upneja & Ozdemir, 2014). According to Achim et al. (2013), organizational performance relies on the
motivational system; this leads organizations to encourage their employees to
work hard for the achievement of organizational goals. Moreover, employees’
satisfaction and wellbeing through job enrichment and enlargement at the
workplace can improve their organizational commitment and motivate them to put
their sincere efforts for organizational success. Empirical findings from
previous studies show that motivational systems adapted by organizations can be
considered as a source to increase the total organizational performance through
motivated employees (Paarlberg & Lavigna, 2010).
Given this, it seems pertinent to consider the factors affecting
employee motivation. Even though some research has been carried out on employee
motivation and its predictors, there is still an excessive need for an
empirical investigation on leading factors that direct employee motivation in
the context of developing countries such as Libya (Teclemichael Tessema &
Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate compensation, job
enrichment and enlargement, training, and their relationship with employee
motivation. The study aims to fill the knowledge gap of prospects and
consequences of employee motivation in the telecommunication sector in Libya.
The findings could potentially assist the organizational leadership and
policymakers in Libya to implement several motivational strategies to enhance
the capabilities of employees and achieve the desired goals.